The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Parameter the suffix is used to form nouns from various types of base ... It is also used to form a small number of adjectives and adverbs ... When added to a root which can function as a noun, the suffix 1. occasionally produces a noun which hardly varies in meaning from the base noun (e.g. 'room' : 'room'); 2. more usually it produces a noun whose referent has some real or fancied resemblance to the referent of the base noun (e.g. 'end' : 'suffix', 'child' : 'interest (on an investment)', 'hair' : 'a fruit, the hairy cherry'; 3. when added to a noun root (usually reduplicated) the suffix forms a noun which refers to a collection of the referents of the simple noun, or of related referents (e.g. 'star' : 'constellation', 'tree' : 'trees, the vegetable kingdom'; 4. when added to a numerative (usually only , or those which can be preceded by in the form ), the suffix forms a noun referring to a group consisting of that number (e.g. 'one' : 'a unit', 'ten' : 'decade, a group of ten'; 5. when added to a verb (all other prefixes and suffixes being lost), the suffix forms a noun which refers to what is involved in the performance of the action referred to by the verb, whether as the product or the instrument (e.g. 'eat' : 'food', 'to draws, paint' : 'a drawing, painting', 'to rock, sway' : 'cradle'. Such nouns in contrast with nouns in , and in that they refer to more concrete or definite things, while the three latter groups refer to more abstract processes. Nonetheless, there is sometimes a congruence in meaning between the noun in and the other nouns, especially those in and ... 6. Such nouns, derived from verbs by the addition of , refer to a collection of items, when the root is reduplicated (e.g. 'to dig' : 'what is dug up' : 'minerals, root crops', 'to shoot' : 'shot' : 'shooting'; 7. Just as the suffix , added to a reduplicated noun root, produces a noun referring to a collection of items, the same suffix, added to a few adjective roots, usually reduplicated, produces a noun referring to a collection of items which can be characterized by that adjective (e.g. 'delicious' : 'delicacies', 'sweet' : 'candy, sweets'; 8. Otherwise, adjectives and the occasional verb root, when reduplicated and followed by , produce adjectives, or adverbs of manner (e.g. 'bright' : 'frank', 'afraid' : 'bashful', 'blind' : 'at random, blindly'). [ebdf0d44afbd324e4ec340c243370db3]

Details Language Value Source